Author Archives: kbroadli

Wetlands

WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS can be found online at The USDA PLANTS Database.

Obligate Wetland
OBL – Obligate Wetland
Almost always occurs in wetlands

Facultative Wetland
FACW – Facultative Wetland
Usually occurs in wetlands, but may occur in non-wetlands

Facultative Wetland
FAC – Facultative
Occurs in wetlands and non-wetlands

Facultative Wetland
FACU – Facultative Upland
Usually occurs in non-wetlands, but may occur in wetlands

Facultative Wetland
UPL  – Upland
Almost never occurs in wetlands.

NL – Not Listed
These plants are not listed in the Western Valleys, Mountains and Coast region of the NWPL.

 

Herbaceous Wetland Plants

  • Aster subspicatus – full sun
  • Carex aquatilis (sitchensis) – full sun
  • Carex comosa – sun/shade
  • Carex cusickii – sun/shade
  • Carex densa – sun/shade
  • Carex deweyana – sun/shade
  • Carex lyngybei – full sun
  • Carex mertensii – full sun
  • Carex obnupta – sun/shade
  • Carex rostrata (utriculata) – sun/shade
  • Carex stipata – sun/shade
  • Deschampsia caespitosa – full sun
  • Eleocharis acicularis – sun/shade
  • Eleocharis palustris – sun/shade
  • Glyceria grandis – sun/shade
  • Juncus articulatus – full sun
  • Juncus balticus – full sun
  • Juncus bolanderi – sun/shade
  • Juncus effusus – full sun
  • Juncus ensifolius – sun/shade
  • Mentha arvensis – sun/shade
  • Mimulus guttatus – sun/shade
  • Oenanthe sarmentosa – sun/shade
  • Potentilla pacifica – full sun
  • Potentilla palustris – full sun
  • Prunella vulgaris – sun/shade
  • Scirpus acutus – full sun
  • Scirpus americanus – full sun
  • Scirpus cyperinus – full sun
  • Scirpus maritimus – full sun
  • Scirpus microcarpus – sun/shade
  • Scirpus pallidus – full sun
  • Sparganium emersum – full sun
  • Stachys cooleyae – sun/shade
  • Typha latifolia – full sun

Shoreline

Estuary

  • Aster subspicatus
  • Carex aquatilis (sitchensis)
  • Carex lyngybei
  • Carex obnupta
  • Deschampsia caespitosa
  • Juncus balticus
  • Myrica gale
  • Plantago maritimum
  • Potentilla pacifica anserina
  • Salix hookeriana
  • Scirpus acutus
  • Scirpus americanus
  • Scirpus cyperinus (atrocinctus)
  • Scirpus maritimus (paladosus)
  • Scirpus microcarpus
  • Typha latifolia

Sandy/Rocky Shoreline

  • Acer circinatum
  • Alnus rubra
  • Alnus sinuata
  • Amelanchier alnifolia
  • Anaphalis margaritacea
  • Angelica lucida
  • Aquilegia formosa
  • Artemisia suksdorfii
  • Aster subspicatus
  • Camassia leichtlinii (spring moist)
  • Carex macrocephala
  • Crataegus douglasii v suksdorfii
  • Elymus mollis
  • Erigeron speciosus
  • Fragaria chiloensis
  • Grindelia integrifolia
  • Heracleum lanatum
  • Holodiscus discolor
  • Lonicera ciliosa
  • Lonicera hispidula
  • Lonicera involucrata
  • Mahonia aquifolium
  • Malus fusca
  • Myrica californica
  • Picea sitchensis
  • Pinus contorta v contorta
  • Potentilla pacifica anserina
  • Prunella vulgaris
  • Prunus emarginata
  • Pseudotsuga menziesii
  • Rhamnus purshiana
  • Ribes sanguineum
  • Rosa nutkana
  • Rubus leucodermis
  • Rubus parviflorus
  • Rubus ursinus
  • Salix hookeriana
  • Salix lucida v lasiandra
  • Salix piperi
  • Salix scouleriana
  • Salix sitchensis
  • Sambucus racemosa
  • Shepherdia canadensis
  • Symphoricarpos albus
  • Vaccinium ovatum

Vigor

Riparian Habitat

Species Typically Exhibiting Vigorous Growth for Weedy Situations

  • Alnus rubra (Red alder)
  • Alnus sinuata (Sitka alder)
  • Lonicera involucrata (Black Twinberry)
  • Physocarpus capitatus (Pacific ninebark)
  • Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce)
  • Populus balsamifera v trichocarpa  (Black cottonwood)
  • Rosa nutkana (Nutka rose)
  • Rosa pisocarpa (Peafruit rose)
  • Rubus leucodermis (Black-cap raspberry)
  • Rubus parviflorus (Thimbleberry)
  • Salix geyeriana (Geyer willow)
  • Salix hookeriana (Hooker willow)
  • Salix lucida v lasiandra (Pacific willow)
  • Salix piperi (Piper willow)
  • Salix rigida (Heartleaf willow)
  • Salix sessilifolia (Soft leaved willow)
  • Salix sitchensis (Sitka willow)
  • Sambucus racemosa (Red elderberry)
  • Spiraea douglasii (Douglas spirea, hardhack)
  • Symphoricarpos albus (Common snowberry)

Species Requiring Extra Care to Become Established

Either finicky about soil conditions or not tolerant of weed competition

  • Abies grandis (Grand fir)
  • Acer circinatum (Vine maple)
  • Acer glabrum (Douglas maple)
  • Acer macrophyllum (Big leaf maple)
  • Amelanchier alnifolia (Serviceberry)
  • Arctostaphylos columbiana (Hairy manzanita)
  • Betula glandulosa (Dwarf birch)
  • Betula papyrifera (Paper birch)
  • Ceanothus sanguineus (Redstem ceanothus)
  • Ceanothus velutinus (Mountain balm)
  • Cornus nuttallii (Pacific dogwood)
  • Cornus sericea (Red twig dogwood)
  • Corylus cornuta (Beaked filbert, Hazelnut)
  • Crataegus columbiana (Columbia hawthorn)
  • Crataegus douglasii v douglasii (Douglas hawthorn)
  • Crataegus douglasii v suksdorfii (Black hawthorn)
  • Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash)
  • Gaultheria shallon (Salal)
  • Holodiscus discolor (Ocean spray)
  • Lonicera ciliosa (Orange honeysuckle)
  • Lonicera hispidula (Hairy honeysuckle)
  • Mahonia aquifolium (Tall Oregon grape)
  • Mahonia nervosa (Cascade Oregon grape)
  • Malus fusca (Pacific crabapple)
  • Myrica californica (Pacific wax myrtle)
  • Myrica gale (Sweet gale)
  • Oemleria cerasiformis (Indian plum)
  • Philadelphus lewisii (Mock orange)
  • Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce)
  • Pinus contorta v contorta (Shore pine)
  • Populus tremuloides (Aspen)
  • Prunus emarginata (Bitter cherry)
  • Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir)
  • Quercus garryana (Garry oak)
  • Rhamnus purshiana (Cascara)
  • Ribes bracteosum (Stink currant)
  • Ribes divaricatum (Black gooseberry)
  • Ribes lacustre (Swamp black gooseberry)
  • Ribes sanguineum (Red-flowering currant)
  • Rosa gymnocarpa (Bald-hip rose)
  • Rubus spectabilis (Salmonberry)
  • Rubus ursinus (Trailing blackberry)
  • Sambucus caerulea (Blue elderberry)
  • Sambucus racemosa (Red elderberry)
  • Shepherdia canadensis (Russet buffaloberry)
  • Spiraea betulifolia (Shiny leaf spirea)
  • Taxus brevifolia (Pacific yew)
  • Thuja plicata (Western red cedar)
  • Tsuga heterophylla (Western hemlock)
  • Vaccinium ovatum (Evergreen huckleberry)
  • Vaccinium parvifolium (Red huckleberry)
  • Viburnum trilobum (High bush cranberry)

Sun & Shade

Species for Partial Shade

For some species, optimal growth in full sun requires proper soil and water conditions, and a lack of competing vegetation. Even species tolerant of partial shade will generally grow more slowly in shade than in sun, and often will not flower or set fruit as they would in the sun.

  • Abies grandis (Grand fir)
  • Acer circinatum (Vine maple)
  • Amelanchier alnifolia (Serviceberry)
  • Ceanothus sanguineus (Redstem ceanothus)
  • Ceanothus velutinus (Mountain balm)
  • Cornus nuttallii (Pacific dogwood)
  • Cornus sericea (Red twig dogwood)
  • Corylus cornuta (Beaked filbert, Hazelnut)
  • Gaultheria shallon (Salal)
  • Holodiscus discolor (Ocean spray)
  • Lonicera ciliosa (Orange honeysuckle)
  • Lonicera hispidula (Hairy honeysuckle)
  • Lonicera involucrata (Black Twinberry)
  • Mahonia aquifolium (Tall Oregon grape)
  • Mahonia nervosa (Cascade Oregon grape)
  • Malus fusca (Pacific crabapple)
  • Oemleria cerasiformis (Indian plum)
  • Physocarpus capitatus (Pacific ninebark)
  • Prunus emarginata (Bitter cherry)
  • Rhamnus purshiana (Cascara)
  • Ribes bracteosum (Stink currant)
  • Ribes divaricatum (Black gooseberry)
  • Ribes lacustre (Swamp black gooseberry)
  • Rosa gymnocarpa (Bald-hip rose)
  • Rosa pisocarpa (Peafruit rose)
  • Rubus leucodermis (Black-cap raspberry)
  • Rubus parviflorus (Thimbleberry)
  • Rubus spectabilis (Salmonberry)
  • Rubus ursinus (Trailing blackberry)
  • Sambucus racemosa (Red elderberry)
  • Shepherdia canadensis (Russet buffaloberry)
  • Spiraea betulifolia (Shiny leaf spirea)
  • Symphoricarpos albus (Common snowberry)
  • Taxus brevifolia (Pacific yew)
  • Thuja plicata (Western red cedar)
  • Tsuga heterophylla (Western hemlock)
  • Vaccinium ovatum (Evergreen huckleberry)
  • Vaccinium parvifolium (Red huckleberry)

Species for Full Sun

For some species, optimal growth in full sun requires proper soil and water conditions and a lack of competing vegetation.

  • Abies grandis (Grand fir)
  • Acer circinatum (Vine maple)
  • Acer glabrum (Douglas maple)
  • Acer macrophyllum (Big leaf maple)
  • Alnus rubra (Red alder)
  • Alnus sinuata (Sitka alder)
  • Amelanchier alnifolia (Serviceberry)
  • Arctostaphylos columbiana (Hairy manzanita)
  • Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Kinickinick)
  • Betula glandulosa (Dwarf birch)
  • Betula papyrifera (Paper birch)
  • Ceanothus sanguineus (Redstem ceanothus)
  • Ceanothus velutinus (Mountain balm)
  • Cornus nuttallii (Pacific dogwood)
  • Cornus sericea (Red twig dogwood)
  • Corylus cornuta (Beaked filbert, Hazelnut)
  • Crataegus columbiana (Columbia hawthorn)
  • Crataegus douglasii v douglasii (Douglas hawthorn)
  • Crataegus douglasii v suksdorfii (Black hawthorn)
  • Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash)
  • Gaultheria shallon (Salal)
  • Holodiscus discolor (Ocean spray)
  • Lonicera ciliosa (Orange honeysuckle)
  • Lonicera hispidula (Hairy honeysuckle)
  • Lonicera involucrata (Black Twinberry)
  • Mahonia aquifolium (Tall Oregon grape)
  • Mahonia nervosa (Cascade Oregon grape)
  • Malus fusca (Pacific crabapple)
  • Myrica californica (Pacific wax myrtle)
  • Myrica gale (Sweet gale)
  • Oemleria cerasiformis (Indian plum)
  • Philadelphus lewisii (Mock orange)
  • Physocarpus capitatus (Pacific ninebark)
  • Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce)
  • Pinus contorta v contorta (Shore pine)
  • Populus balsamifera v trichocarpa (Black cottonwood)
  • Populus tremuloides (Aspen)
  • Prunus emarginata (Bitter cherry)
  • Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir)
  • Quercus garryana (Garry oak)
  • Rhamnus purshiana (Cascara)
  • Ribes bracteosum (Stink currant)
  • Ribes divaricatum (Black gooseberry)
  • Ribes lacustre (Swamp black gooseberry)
  • Ribes sanguineum (Red-flowering currant)
  • Rosa gymnocarpa (Bald-hip rose)
  • Rosa nutkana (Nutka rose)
  • Rosa pisocarpa (Peafruit rose)
  • Rubus leucodermis (Black-cap raspberry)
  • Rubus parviflorus (Thimbleberry)
  • Rubus spectabilis (Salmonberry)
  • Rubus ursinus (Trailing blackberry)
  • Salix fluviatilis (Columbia willow)
  • Salix geyeriana (Geyer willow)
  • Salix hookeriana (Hooker willow)
  • Salix lucida v lasiandra (Pacific willow)
  • Salix piperi (Piper willow)
  • Salix rigida (Heartleaf willow)
  • Salix scouleriana (Scouler willow)
  • Salix sessilifolia (Soft leaved willow)
  • Salix sitchensis (Sitka willow)
  • Sambucus caerulea (Blue elderberry)
  • Sambucus racemosa (Red elderberry)
  • Shepherdia canadensis (Russet buffaloberry)
  • Spiraea betulifolia (Shiny leaf spirea)
  • Spiraea douglasii (Douglas spirea, hardhack)
  • Symphoricarpos albus (Common snowberry)
  • Taxus brevifolia (Pacific yew)
  • Thuja plicata (Western red cedar)
  • Tsuga heterophylla (Western hemlock)
  • Vaccinium ovatum (Evergreen huckleberry)
  • Vaccinium parvifolium (Red huckleberry)
  • Viburnum trilobum (High bush cranberry)

Soil

Mineral Soils

  • Abies grandis (Grand fir)
  • Acer circinatum (Vine maple)
  • Acer glabrum (Douglas maple)
  • Acer macrophyllum (Big leaf maple)
  • Alnus rubra (Red alder)
  • Alnus sinuata (Sitka alder)
  • Amelanchier alnifolia (Serviceberry)
  • Arctostaphylos columbiana (Hairy manzanita)
  • Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Kinickinick)
  • Betula papyrifera (Paper birch)
  • Ceanothus sanguineus (Redstem ceanothus)
  • Ceanothus velutinus (Mountain balm)
  • Cornus nuttallii (Pacific dogwood)
  • Cornus sericea (Red twig dogwood)
  • Corylus cornuta (Beaked filbert, Hazelnut)
  • Crataegus columbiana (Columbia hawthorn)
  • Crataegus douglasii v douglasii (Douglas hawthorn)
  • Crataegus douglasii v suksdorfii (Black hawthorn)
  • Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash)
  • Gaultheria shallon (Salal)
  • Holodiscus discolor (Ocean spray)
  • Lonicera ciliosa (Orange honeysuckle)
  • Lonicera hispidula (Hairy honeysuckle)
  • Lonicera involucrata (Black Twinberry)
  • Mahonia aquifolium (Tall Oregon grape)
  • Mahonia nervosa (Cascade Oregon grape)
  • Mahonia repens (Creeping Oregon grape)
  • Malus fusca (Pacific crabapple)
  • Myrica californica (Pacific wax myrtle)
  • Oemleria cerasiformis (Indian plum)
  • Philadelphus lewisii (Mock orange)
  • Physocarpus capitatus (Pacific ninebark)
  • Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce)
  • Pinus contorta v contorta (Shore pine)
  • Populus balsamifera v trichocarpa (Black cottonwood)
  • Populus tremuloides (Aspen)
  • Prunus emarginata (Bitter cherry)
  • Prunus virginiana (Choke cherry)
  • Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir)
  • Quercus garryana (Garry oak)
  • Rhamnus purshiana (Cascara)
  • Ribes bracteosum (Stink currant)
  • Ribes divaricatum (Black gooseberry)
  • Ribes lacustre (Swamp black gooseberry)
  • Ribes sanguineum (Red-flowering currant)
  • Rosa gymnocarpa (Bald-hip rose)
  • Rosa nutkana (Nutka rose)
  • Rosa pisocarpa (Peafruit rose)
  • Rubus leucodermis (Black-cap raspberry)
  • Rubus parviflorus (Thimbleberry)
  • Rubus spectabilis (Salmonberry)
  • Rubus ursinus (Trailing blackberry)
  • Salix fluviatilis (Columbia willow)
  • Salix geyeriana (and organic, peat) (Geyer willow)
  • Salix hookeriana (Hooker willow)
  • Salix lucida v lasiandra (also organic) (Pacific willow)
  • Salix piperi (Piper willow)
  • Salix rigida (prolixa) (maybe to 25′, also organic) (Heartleaf willow)
  • Salix scouleriana (Scouler willow)
  • Salix sessilifolia (Soft leaved willow)
  • Salix sitchensis (Sitka willow)
  • Sambucus caerulea (Blue elderberry)
  • Sambucus racemosa (Red elderberry)
  • Shepherdia canadensis (Russet buffaloberry)
  • Spiraea betulifolia (Shiny leaf spirea)
  • Spiraea douglasii (Douglas spirea, hardhack)
  • Symphoricarpos albus (Common snowberry)
  • Taxus brevifolia (Pacific yew)
  • Thuja plicata (Western red cedar)
  • Tsuga heterophylla (Western hemlock)
  • Vaccinium ovatum (prefers organic) (Evergreen huckleberry)
  • Vaccinium parvifolium (prefers organic) (Red huckleberry)
  • Viburnum trilobum (High bush cranberry)

Organic Soils

  • Abies grandis (Grand fir)
  • Acer circinatum (Vine maple)
  • Acer glabrum (Douglas maple)
  • Acer macrophyllum (Big leaf maple)
  • Alnus rubra (prefers mineral) (Red alder)
  • Alnus sinuata (prefers mineral) (Sitka alder)
  • Amelanchier alnifolia (prefers mineral) (Serviceberry)
  • Betula glandulosa (Dwarf birch)
  • Betula papyrifera (Paper birch)
  • Cornus sericea (Red twig dogwood)
  • Corylus cornuta (Beaked filbert)
  • Crataegus douglasii v douglasii (Douglas hawthorn)
  • Crataegus douglasii v suksdorfii (Black hawthorn)
  • Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash)
  • Gaultheria shallon (Salal)
  • Holodiscus discolor (Ocean spray)
  • Lonicera ciliosa (Orange honeysuckle)
  • Lonicera involucrata (Black Twinberry)
  • Mahonia aquifolium (Tall Oregon grape)
  • Mahonia nervosa (Cascade Or. grape)
  • Mahonia repens (Creeping Or. grape)
  • Malus fusca (Pacific crabapple)
  • Myrica gale (Sweet gale)
  • Oemleria cerasiformis (Indian plum)
  • Physocarpus capitatus (Pacific ninebark)
  • Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce)
  • Pinus contorta v contorta (Shore pine)
  • Populus balsamifera v trichocarpa (Black cottonwood)
  • Populus tremuloides (Aspen)
  • Rhamnus purshiana (Cascara)
  • Ribes divaricatum (Black gooseberry)
  • Ribes lacustre (Swamp black gooseberry)
  • Rosa gymnocarpa (Bald-hip rose)
  • Rosa nutkana (Nutka rose)
  • Rosa pisocarpa (Peafruit rose)
  • Rubus leucodermis (Black-cap raspberry)
  • Rubus parviflorus (Thimbleberry)
  • Rubus spectabilis (Salmonberry)
  • Rubus ursinus (Trailing blackberry)
  • Salix geyeriana (Geyer willow)
  • Salix hookeriana (Hooker willow)
  • Salix lucida v lasiandra (Pacific willow)
  • Salix piperi (Piper willow)
  • Salix rigida (prolixa) (Heartleaf willow)
  • Salix sitchensis (Sitka willow)
  • Sambucus racemosa (Red elderberry)
  • Shepherdia canadensis (Russet buffaloberry)
  • Spiraea douglasii (Douglas spirea, hardhack)
  • Symphoricarpos albus (Common snowberry)
  • Taxus brevifolia (Pacific yew)
  • Thuja plicata (Western red cedar)
  • Tsuga heterophylla (Western hemlock)
  • Vaccinium ovatum (Evergreen huckleberry)
  • Vaccinium parvifolium (Red huckleberry)
  • Viburnum trilobum (High bush cranberry)

Peat Soils

  • Betula glandulosa (Dwarf birch)
  • Cornus sericea (Red twig dogwood)
  • Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash)
  • Gaultheria shallon (on hummocks so not saturated) (Salal)
  • Lonicera involucrata (Black Twinberry)
  • Myrica gale (Sweet gale)
  • Picea sitchensis (stunted) (Sitka spruce)
  • Pinus contorta v contorta (stunted) (Shore pine)
  • Rhamnus purshiana (Cascara)
  • Salix geyeriana (Geyer willow)
  • Salix piperi (Piper willow)
  • Spiraea douglasii (Douglas spirea, hardhack)